VISITING MULTINATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN ARGENTINA
In January of 2012 I went to Argentina for two weeks with a class on Managing Multinational Organizations taught by a colleague, Dan Duran. We visited fifteen leading corporations and non-profit organizations in Buenos Aires, and had very informative presentations by top managers about the challenges of applying global management standards in local contexts. The visits gave me a deeper appreciation of the complexities of managerial decision-making, and the intelligence needed to do the analyses that the presenters shared with us. I also visited several art museums, spent a day at a tourist ranch on the pampas, and took a boat excursion on the river delta.
I will describe the purpose of the trip, relevant political and economic history, language, food, our flights, Buenos Aires neighborhoods, our daily routine, the organizations we visited, our three-day weekend break, the museums I saw, the tango dinner show the last night, our return to Los Angeles, and final reflections.
I have identified fifty-nine photos in this travelogue that are posted at http://ArgentinaJanuary2012.shutterfly.com/pictures/8. Students have posted blogs and photos at http://wcargentina.wordpress.com. Photo 1 shows our group in Plaza de Mayo, the main city square.
PURPOSE OF THE TRIP
The class is concerned about the challenges of adapting multinational organizations to differences among nations and sub-regions. To what extent can organizational structures, management styles, policies, products, services, and marketing be the same globally, and how can they be adapted to local conditions? Political stability, legal regulations, economic stability, income distribution, infrastructure (including communication and transportation), cultural behaviors, and attitudes must be analyzed in decision-making. The presentations gave great examples of these analyses. The class is also concerned about environmental sustainability and social justice, and was pleased to have these issues addressed as well.
My colleague decided to take the class to Argentina since it is one of the most dynamic countries in South America, and it is on the Pacific Rim, which is increasingly important for economic trade. He has taken previous classes to Mexico, Spain, and Asia. I have gone with him and his class to Mexico twice in the past, and we have taught a paired course in the spring several times. When courses are paired, students take both courses at the same time, and the instructors coordinate some aspects of the course and attend each other's classes to point out linkages.
My Diverse Identities course, which is cross-listed in psychology and sociology, has been paired with his International Marketing course in the past, and is paired with International Business this spring. We thought there might be some overlap, but discovered that there is tremendous overlap between our courses. Marketing appeals to identities and lifestyles, and hence everything in my course is relevant to his. My course talks about national, racial, ethnic, religious, political, social class, occupational, geographic, age, gender, sexual, family, and health identities.
I have gone on these trips because I like to learn about other cultures. Argentina is the forty-ninth country on six continents that I have visited through exchange programs, study tours, conferences, and personal travel.
RELEVANT POLITICAL HISTORY
Knowledge of a country's political and economic history is crucial for understanding the environment in which organization operate. The following is summarized from Let's Go Buenos Aires, 2008. Let's Go is my favorite guidebook series. The books are written by Harvard students for students, and list inexpensive lodging, cultural events, music venues, dance clubs, and other information.
Humans have occupied Argentina for at least thirteen thousand years. Spanish explorers came in the 16th century, founding Buenos Aires successfully in 1580 after failed attempts in 1516 and 1536. Cattle became the major industry. In 1776 Buenos Aires was designated as the capital of the region. Argentina declared its independence from Spain in 1810 after Spain had been conquered by Napoleon, and achieved it militarily in 1814 under General Jose de San Martin. Following that there was a series of military dictators, presidents, and coups.
Most famous was Juan Peron who was elected president in 1946. His wife Eva was known as Evita, an actress who championed women and the working class until her death of cancer in 1952. After a military junta ruled, Juan Peron became president again in 1973 with his new wife Isabel Peron. Then a military dictator ruled from 1976-1983 during which 30,000 people were interrogated, tortured, and executed. Democracy returned in 1983. This political instability has been a major consideration in decisions about doing business in Argentina, since businesses have at times been nationalized or privatized.
RELEVANT ECONOMIC HISTORY
In 1989, to fight inflation, the value of the Argentine peso was pegged to be equal to the US dollar. There was strong economic growth in the 1990s, but much of it was funded by loans from the International Monetary Fund that couldn't be repaid, and the economy collapsed in 2001. The value of the peso dropped to less than one fourth of a dollar, and many savings and stock market investments were lost, basically wiping out a growing middle class.
From presenters and others, we learned that the economy has rebounded in the past few years, but today's middle class is very suspicious of government, banks, and foreign influences, and appears to have a very short-term rather than long-term outlook on life. People spend money instead of saving it, since its value may decrease. They try to convert it to dollars, but there are limits on how much can be exchanged for dollars based on ones income. Banks are unwilling to make loans for mortgages, since the repayments may become of lower value, so people must pay cash to purchase homes.
There were many European immigrants in the early half of the twentieth century, so today about 40% of the people in Buenos Aires have Italian background and about 40% have Spanish. Only 3% are indigenous, very few are African or Asian, and the rest are other European. As a result, people often speak Spanish with an Italian accent, and they say Ciao for goodbye. This is a good example of how the primary language of immigrants can influence second language learning. Argentines often drop final S, and they pronounce LL as SH instead of as Y. For example, they pronounce Pollo (chicken) as POSHO rather than as POYO. I have no idea where that comes from!
Beef is very common in restaurants, since cattle are grown on the pampas and beef is shipped to the US and elsewhere. Serving sizes are huge, steaks often being as large as a pound. The steaks are tender, but they are generally cooked well done. Some of the restaurants, called parrillas, have grills in front where you can watch the steaks and other food being cooked (photo 2). Italian food is everywhere, and there are many ice cream shops selling Italian Gellato (photo 3) and other varieties (photo 4). The most prevalent fast food is Spanish empa–adas (small filled pastries, photo 5).
For lunch, it is hard to find any sandwich other than ham and cheese. They even put ham and cheese in a hamburger when you order it with all the trimmings (photo 6)! We found a restaurant called Filo, which made the best pizza we had ever eaten (photo 7). The most amusing menu was one that listed Spanish canned food (photo 8)! The national drink is Yerba Matte, which is steeped in a gourd or ceramic bowl, and drunk through a silver straw with a filter (photo 9).
Seventeen of the students and I were booked together on a ten-hour flight from Los Angeles to Santiago, Chile, and a two-hour flight from Santiago to Buenos Aires. I arrived at the LA airport three hours early so I could request an exit row seat to have enough legroom, since I am so tall (6'8" or 203 cm). The first flight was overnight, but I wasn't able to sleep due to the sound of the engines and excitement about the trip. Four students had booked separate flights; two met us at the Buenos Aires airport and two met us later at the hotel, along with Dan and his wife Alicia who had flown there the day before.
The week before the trip, the class had met three hours a day for three days to discuss readings, key concepts, and logistics for the trip. Two students participated in the class using Skype, a program that lets you talk for free from computer to computer with video, or call any telephone in the world for about two cents per minute. They did not fly back to LA after the holiday break to save money on airfare. One flew to Buenos Aires from Italy!
We met our tour guide in the Buenos Aires airport, after waiting for one of the students to clear customs. She was the first visitor from Kosovo (which gained its independence from Serbia three years ago), and Kosovo was not on their list of countries for visa requirements. We each had to pay an entry fee of $140 in retaliation for the US charging entry fees for Argentines. I found an ATM machine and withdrew Argentine pesos, which were each worth about one-fourth of a dollar. We took a tour bus to the hotel to check in, and then had a four-hour tour of the city.
BUENOS AIRES NEIGHBORHOODS
Buenos Aires is divided into 48 neighborhoods, but the innermost ones are of most interest to visitors (photo 10). We visited several on our city tour. Our hotel was in MONSERRAT, about a mile from the Plaza de Mayo, which is the main square, where we went first. It is the location of political protests that occur almost daily. On one end is the presidential palace Casa Rosada, which is pink to represent the union of the red (Federalist) and white (Unitarios) political parties when it was built (photo 11).
Across the street on one side is the Catedral Metopolitana, which has the tomb of General Josˇ de San Martin of independence fame. I was surprised that tourists were walking around the cathedral taking photos while a mass was being held.
Next we went past San Telmo to have lunch in LA BOCA, which means The Mouth, referring to the original port along the R’o de la Plata, which means the river of Silver. The river was the route along which silver was exported; the river itself is a muddy brown. The port area was the home of immigrant dockworkers, which built houses of wood and metal, and painted them bright colors using barge paint (photo 12). On weekends there is a street fair with crafts that we visited (photo 13).
From there we backtracked to SAN TELMO to visit the Sunday antique market (photo 14) and street fair (photo 7815).
We drove across the Avenida 9 de Julio, which is 16 lanes wide and has the obelisk on the Plaza de la Republica (photo 16). The nearby old buildings in the city look European (photo 17).
We went two miles past the Plaza de Mayo to RECOLETA. There we visited the famous cemetery, which has family crypts with a tiny chapel above ground and stairs leading to tombs underground (photo 18). We saw the tomb of Evita Peron with her maiden name Duarte (photo 19).
We saw additional neighborhoods on subsequent days when we visited organizations, including RETIRO which has fancy shops on the pedestrian street Florida (photo 20), and PALERMO which has parks and fancy high rise apartments (photo 21). Residents there often pay someone to walk their dogs (photo 22).
Since Argentina is below the equator, it was summer there, with temperatures ranging from the 80s to high 90s. South America is east of North America, so the time zone in Argentina was five hours later than in Los Angeles.
We visited organizations on Monday through Thursday of the first week and Monday through Friday of the second week. We usually met about 8:00 after breakfast in the hotel for briefings (photo 23). Each student had been assigned to three teams, and each team researched an organization's history, milestones, strategy, and goals, and suggested questions to ask. They jointly wrote a several-page brief and gave an oral presentation (photo 24). As a result, the students were well prepared to be engaged and ask insightful questions.
World Strides, the company that helped my colleague arrange the visits, received feedback from the organizations saying that they were impressed with the level of engagement of the students. This was the first undergraduate group that had visited them; usually MBA students come and visit much fewer organizations. We also were the first group to visit non-profit organizations through World Strides.
After briefings on the two organizations for the day, we took a tour bus to the first organization, had a break for lunch on our own in an area of restaurants, and then usually visited a second organization in the afternoon. We returned to the hotel about 5 PM, where I relaxed, read my email, wrote in a trip diary, and sometimes read part of a novel, until it was time to go to a late dinner.
I had brought my netbook computer, and the hotel had wifi. They had agreed to give each room one hour of wifi free each day; otherwise it was 10 pesos ($2.50) per hour or 30 pesos ($7.50) per day. I had brought my global Android cellphone, but it was too expensive to use it for email or telephone calls, so I only used it for text messages, which are cheap. I had a private room, my colleague and his wife had a room, and the students had four per room with four beds, except one room had an added cot for a fifth student.
I usually went to dinner with my colleague and his wife (photo 25), about 8:30. At that time restaurants are beginning to serve dinner, but are not as crowded as they are by 9:30. The first few nights we had steaks since that is the country's specialty, but we soon tired of steak and tried fish and other dishes. We often shared a salad since the servings were huge, and we tried various brands of Malbec, the most famous Argentine red wine.
ORGANIZATIONS VISITED FIRST WEEK
The first organization we visited on Monday was MERVAL, the Buenos Aires stock exchange. The Chief Economist and a Senior Economist explained the economic crisis in 2001 and recent market trends. We then went on the trading floor, where traders buy and sell via computer instead of shouting out loud (photo 26). About 80% of the trading is for bonds. Large screens on the wall show the status of various stocks as well as indexes for other Exchanges around the world.
Our second visit was to IRAM, the Argentine member of the International Organization for Standardization. The Director explained that ISO sets global standards for management practices, manufacturing, environmental sustainability, and working conditions. The standards are set through a consensus process with input from producers, consumers, government officials, and others. IRAM sets standards for companies in Argentina for which there are no global standards. Sometimes governments will not allow goods to be manufactured or imported unless they meet ISO standards.
On Tuesday morning we visited the residence of the U.S. AMBASSADOR to Argentina. She was visiting her adult children in California, but arranged for us to meet with the Vice-Consul at her residence where there would be less time-consuming security measures than at the US Embassy. The Vice-Consul and two other staff talked about the functions of the embassy, including monitoring local politics and economics, arranging trade agreements, helping US citizens, and issuing visas for the US. They recommended registering online at travelstate.gov when abroad in case there is an emergency requiring evacuation of US citizens. They also talked about careers in Foreign Service, noting that there are internships and fellowship available, which the students found inspiring.
Tuesday afternoon we visited NOKIA, a Finnish company that had been very dominant worldwide, until 2007 when Apple released the iPhone and other companies produced Android smartphones. To regain market share, they have been marketing low-end phones in developing countries, and just announced a new smartphone using Windows 7 software in an alliance with Microsoft. Government regulations required that they export as much value as they import, so they built a phone manufacturing plant in Argentina.
Wednesday morning we were supposed to meet with the American Chamber of Commerce, which helps American businesses operate in Argentina, but they were not prepared to meet with us due to vacation. So we explored shops and had lunch in La Boca.
Wednesday afternoon we met with a Partner in BAKER & MCKENZIE, the largest law firm in the world that deals with international business. They help businesses set up operations in other countries, dealing with all of the legal issues involved. They have 3800 lawyers in 42 countries, and have two thousand clients including many well-known multinational corporations. They try to explain environmental ethics to governments, and balance profit with social responsibility.
Thursday morning we met with representatives of two organizations at our hotel since their offices were closed for vacation. The first was a representative of the Argentine office of the FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, which is a United Nations agency that fights hunger. He said that there is enough food produced in the world to feed all seven billion people, and cited production figures, but the problem is uneven distribution. The agency canÕt do anything about distribution, so it promotes increased food production by giving advice on best practices, and coordinates planning for emergency food after disasters.
The second organization was ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, the largest environmental consulting firm in the world, with 137 offices in 39 countries. The Contaminated Site Management Practice Director spoke about the challenges of applying international standards locally where they might not be feasible. For example, cleaning up a waste site might be difficult if there are no local companies that have the facilities to do the work. And cleanup standards vary, such as those for water treatment that depend on what the water is to be used for, e.g., drinking versus irrigation.
Thursday afternoon was free, so I visited museums described below, and then we had a free three-day weekend that is also described below.
ORGANIZATIONS VISITED SECOND WEEK
The following Monday morning we visited HABITAT FOR HUMANITY whose office was in a house out in a suburb whose houses had iron fences and bars on windows (photo 27). The National Director told us about the difficulties of being able to rent housing, due to a requirement that one had to put up property as collateral. Friends and relatives were reluctant to do that due to the losses during the economic collapse in 2001. As a result, many people had to rent slum housing for almost as much as legitimate housing. The government recently legalized ownership of the slum housing, so those on the first floor built additional floors above to rent (photo 28). The slums were built by construction workers from nearby countries brought to build high-rise apartments. We occasionally saw homeless people sleeping in doorways.
Monday afternoon was free, so I joined Dan and his wife on a tour of the ornate Teatro Colon opera house (photo 29) that was reminiscent of the Versailles palace in France. I also tried to visit the MUSEO MUNDIAL DEL TANGO, but the entrance was locked. A doorman next door told me that the museum was closed for vacation. There was no sign at the entrance or indication on its website indicating the closure. Many Argentines take a vacation in January when the weather is hot.
Tuesday morning we visited REGINALD LEE, one of five bottlers of Coca Cola products in Argentina. The Director of Operations and Marketing gave an interesting presentation on their marketing strategy, which takes into account social economic status and the sizes of bottles purchased in different venues, e.g., large bottles but not packs of single servings in grocery stores. We then toured the plant to see how coke is bottled, labeled, and packaged, which the students found fascinating (photo 30).
That afternoon we visited REPSOL YPF, an oil refining company that is the largest employer in Argentina with sixteen thousand employees. YPF was a state company that was privatized then taken over by the Spanish conglomerate Repsol. We met in a tall skyscraper with a great view of the city (photo 31), and the students asked questions about alternative energy sources and the effects of the acquisition, which created problems due to cultural differences.
That evening Dan, his wife, and I went to a jazz club and heard a great trio (photo 32).
Wednesday morning we visited VF JEANSWEAR, which sells Wrangler, Lee, North Face, and other clothing brands throughout Latin America. The President presented an in-depth analysis of marketing in each of the countries, taking into account political stability, middle class growth, competition, retail channels, tariffs, and cultural differences. For example, rodeos are popular in some countries, but not in others, so the ad campaigns are different. After meeting in a tall skyscraper (photo 32), we went to a mall to see the largest-selling Wrangler store (photo 34). The Country Sales Manager said that 80% of the jeans are bought for men, but 50% of the jeans are bought by women. Some students took advantage of the 40% employee discount offered us!
Wednesday afternoon we visited an office of IBM that stores data for many companies (photo 35). The SO PE Manager of Global Technology Services answered many questions and played a great video about the history of IBM and its technological innovations. He showed us the redundancies in servers, air conditioning, and electricity generators to maintain services in case of problems. I had worked for IBM in a summer program when I was a graduate student; I thought it was to recruit employees, but it was to recruit future customers Š they sent met to Palo Alto for training, which consisted of presentations on the many things that IBM could do.
Thursday morning we visited the Pan American Health Organization, which is part of the WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, a special agency of the United Nations. The Representative had experience in many countries, and explained that the goal of WHO is to promote good health practices. They provide technical knowledge and work closely with Ministries of Health.
Thursday afternoon we visited the INTERNATIONAL FINANCE CORPORATION that is part of the WORLD BANK GROUP. We met with a Principal Investment Officer on the 28th floor of a skyscraper that had a mirror on the ceiling of the lobby (photo 36) and great views (photo 37). The IFC makes loans to strengthen jobs, build infrastructure, and agricultural efficiency.
Friday morning we visited the INTERAMERICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK. The Senior Country Economist explained that the IDB is owned by 48 countries of which 26 are borrowing countries (photo 38). He gave an interesting presentation on the criteria used to assess sustainability of economic and social development. The IDB finances development projects to reduce poverty, address needs of the most vulnerable, promote sustainable energy, deal with climate change, and promote regional integration.
Friday afternoon we visited the headquarters of COCA COLA ARGENTINA. My colleague wanted to visit them because Coke is the best-known brand in the world. The Marketing Director and four of his colleagues gave comprehensive analyses of marketing in different regions of Argentina taking into account social class; planning taking into account political, economic, social, and technology factors; sustainability issues; and ethical business practices. The company's most important assets are its people (who need to be happy to unleash their creative potential) and their brand.
We had a three-day weekend break between the visits with organizations. Thirteen students took a bus to Mar del Plata, a beach resort 250 miles south of Buenos Aires. Three students rented a place in Palermo Hollywood where the best dance clubs are. The clubs typically open at 1 AM, get going by 2 AM, and stay open all night. I usually go clubbing when I travel, but staying up all night wasn't compatible with my weekend plans and 8 AM briefings during the week.
My colleague and his wife took a ferry across river to the La Colonia, an historic city in Uruguay, for a relaxing weekend. I stayed overnight in Buenos Aires, and visited museums on Friday, then took a day trip to a ranch on Saturday and a boat excursion on Sunday.
Five students and I went to a ranch for a ŅGauchoÓ (Argentine cowboy) experience on Saturday. I knew that it would be touristy, but it was fun anyway. We took a ninety-minute bus ride to a ranch where we first rode horseback (photo 39), but only for fifteen minutes in a large circle. We explored the small ranch house that was a museum. We also saw a huge grill where beef, chicken, chorizo sausage, and blood sausage were being grilled for the dinner (photo 40). We then sat with about two hundred people at long tables in a pavilion that had wood and thatch on the inside with a metal roof on top (photo 41). Waiters brought serving plates of three kinds of salads, then trays of each of the four kinds of meat in sequence. The food was good, except for the blood sausage that had the consistency inside of oatmeal. There was a dance performance in which a couple did the tango then a couple of other types of dances were shown.
After dinner we watched a show outside in which horseback riders tried to use a large metal pin to catch a one-inch diameter ring suspended on a leather thong under a wooden structure while galloping under it (photo 42). When they were successful, they would present the ring to a woman in the audience with a kiss on the cheek. Kissing on the cheek is a common in Argentina, among all combinations of genders. The students slept on the bus ride back (photo 43).
On Sunday I took a boat excursion to the river delta. A tour bus took me from the hotel to the docks, after picking up people at other hotels around the city. The boat (on the left in photo 44) took us down the river past the docks (photo 45), then wound through islands in the delta (photo 46), alongside vacation homes (photo 47). On the boat I met people from Brazil, including three couples, and a Spanish class on a fieldtrip from Sao Palo. After an hour boat ride, the boat docked and we took a tour bus back to Buenos Aires, stopping at a small mall for lunch and shopping on the way. It was a fun excursion since I enjoy being on the water and also meeting people.
MUSEUMS I VISITED
The three-day weekend actually started that Thursday afternoon, so I visited three museums that day and four more on Friday. To get to them I rode the subway (photo 48), took buses, and walked. The subway cars on line A from the hotel to the Plaza de Mayo downtown were built of wood in the 1910s and are the oldest in the world. Figuring out the subway system was easy, but the bus system is very complex. The bus guide has grids with numbers that tell you which bus numbers go from one grid to another, but they do not show the routes on a map; instead they list the streets and it is hard to figure out where the bus stops are. So I often ended up walking a mile between museums.
On Thursday I wanted to visit the MUSEO ETNOGRAHICO, which has historical dioramas, but it was closed for renovations. The MUSEO HISTORICO NACIONAL had paintings of famous Argentines, but no narrative to explain the history, so it was disappointing.
The MUSEO DE BELLA ARTES DE LA BOCA had sculptures on the roof, with a great view, and several rooms of powerful paintings of dockworkers and ships painted by Benito Quinquela Martin that I liked very much.
Next door was the small MAGUNCIA museum, which had delightful quirky sculptures made of paper machˇ. including a birdman with glasses reading a book, a funky streetcar full of people, and a mouseman (satire of Mickey?) riding a dog (photo 49).
Nearby was the FUNDACIÆN PROA, which had a temporary exhibit of ceramic gods from prehispanic Mexico, including ones I may have seen in the archeology museum in Mexico City.
On Friday I first visited the MUSEO DE ARTE LATINOAMERICANO DE BUENOS AIRES (MALBA, photo 50). It had modern art, including major works by Cruz-Diaz who experimented with color for its own sake, apart from representations of objects. Some of his paintings have vertical strips with different colors on each side and between, so the patterns of color change as you move left or right. I liked his work.
While walking from MALBA to the next museum, I passed by the metal flower sculpture that opens in the morning and closes at night (photo 51).
Second was the MUSEO NACIONAL DE BELLAS ARTES, which had works by European and Argentine artists, such as sculptures by Rodin and paintings by French Impressionists whose styles I immediately recognized.
Third was the CENTRO CULTURAL RECOLETA, next to the cemetery. I had walked all around the cemetery trying to find it, discovering a modern mall on the other side (photo 52). The cultural center had some art installations that I thought were too weird for my taste. Next to it was mall on the hillside called Buenos Aires Design (photo 53).
Fourth was the MUSEO MUNICIPAL DE ARTE HISPANOAMERICANO, in a Spanish courtyard among high-rise apartments (photo 54). It had mainly Catholic religious art, including a room full of paintings of Mary.
DINNER TANGO SHOW
On our last night we went to the Tango Porte–o (photo 55). First we had a tango lesson, taught by the dancers who would later perform (photo 56). While there we met an MBA class from another school that had been there a week but had only visited three corporations. After dinner, there was an excellent performance of tango by several couples with live music (photo 57).
I had learned from my daughter, who is a professor of ethnomusicology, that the tango began in brothels. Men danced with each other while waiting to see the prostitutes (photo 58). After the tango became popular in Europe, it became respectable in Argentina. It is currently very popular in Finland, where my daughter has done research.
RETURN TO LOS ANGELES
We flew from Buenos Aires (photo 59) to Santiago, and Santiago to Los Angeles, overnight Saturday night. I was exhausted, but surprisingly awake, when my wife picked me up at the airport. I had Monday and Tuesday to catch up, before advising new students on Wednesday and begin teaching Spring Semester classes on Thursday. The students on the trip had to turn in final versions of their briefing papers on Wednesday, and a final paper on issues addressed on the trip, citing examples from organizations visited, was due on Friday. I thought I would be over jetlag by now, but I am still waking up at 4:30 AM!
In reflecting on the trip, my colleague was glad that he had included non-profit organizations along with corporations. Because of learning from the Non-Government Organizations and Inter-Governmental Organizations, the class will be changed to consider both for-profit and not-for-profit agencies and organizations in the future. This reflects how a liberal arts college can adapt to reflect the world we live and work in.
However, he felt that 15 organizations was too much work! I suggested that it would be useful to visit a government agency of the country and/or the city as well to get their perspective. We both felt that it would be good to have more cultural events, such as a museum or music performance, since some students had gone to the MALBA and they all enjoyed the Tango show so much.